Innovative beehive fences have helped a community in Kenya to successfully protect crops from elephants, according to research.
Previous research into natural deterrents showed that elephants avoided African honey bees.
In 32 attempted raids over three crop seasons, only one bull elephant managed to penetrate the novel defences.
The beehives were suspended on wires between posts with a flat thatched roof above to protect from the sun in the traditional Kenyan style.
The team created a boundaries for 17 farms, incorporating 170 beehives into 1,700m of fencing.
"The interlinked beehive fences not only stopped elephants from raiding our study farms but the farmers profited from selling honey to supplement their low incomes," Dr King explained.
"The honey production and consequent income has really incentivised the farmers to maintain the fences."
Conservationists now hope to roll out the scheme to other farming communities.